Could a laid-back approach to breastfeeding help your baby latch on?

baby_cryingAlthough it’s perfectly feasible to feed your baby any way that feels comfortable, four positions are commonly recommended. These are the cradle hold, the football hold, lying on your side, and the cross-cradle hold. This last position requires you to sit up with a straight back, hold your baby sideways on, and carefully position him with his nose opposite your nipple so he has a large mouthful of breast when he latches on. It can seem like quite a complicated process for a beginner, particularly when a crying baby is added to the equation. Nevertheless, it is particularly recommended to new mothers, as it is apparently the best position in which to ensure your baby is latching on correctly – something that many women (and babies) can find quite difficult.

Despite the strong recommendation of these feeding positions, there appears to be virtually no scientific evidence to justify their use. In practical terms, it is easy to see why being able to discreetly breastfeed whilst sitting up is a useful skill to master, but for a new mother, simply being able to comfortably nourish her baby may be a more immediate priority.

A recent study conducted at hospitals in the UK and France calls into question the idea that the traditionally recommended feeding positions are automatically the best ones1. During the study, 40 women whose babies were less than a month old were videotaped breastfeeding in a series of recording sessions. As long as feeding was going well, mothers were not advised or guided in any way: they were simply left to get on with it in whichever was most comfortable for them. In the ‘best’ recorded feeding session 21 of the mothers sat upright to feed their babies, one lay flat on her back, and one lay on her side; the remaining 17 were semi-reclined with their babies lying on their tummies (a behaviour termed ‘Biological Nurturing’).

There were some striking differences in the feeding process when mothers adopted a reclining position, as opposed to sitting upright. When babies lay on their mothers’ tummies, their mothers’ hands were free to gently guide them. Stroking their babies’ feet seemed to be particularly helpful, as it released mouth and tongue reflexes that helped them to latch on. By contrast, when babies were held in their mothers’ arms, their legs and feet were left in thin air, and the foot-to-mouth connection was lost.

The reclinining group did not need to line up the nose and nipple, and make sure the baby’s mouth was open wide enough before initiating the latch: as the baby was on top, gravity pulled his tongue and chin forward, allowing him to attach himself, even when he was sleepy. Gravity also automatically ensured a close fit between the baby’s chin and the mother’s breast, facilitating deep suckling and producing the ear and jaw movements that indicate successful feeding.

Perhaps the most interesting result, however, was that babies exhibited reflexes that helped feeding when their mothers were reclined, but hindered it when their mothers were upright. When they were lying on their mothers’ tummies, head-righting and -lifting reflexes allowed the baby to orientate himself for successful latching on. When mothers were upright however, these irregular, jerky head movements had the opposite effect: the head bobbing that resembled ‘nodding’ when a mother was reclined was perceived as ‘head butting’ when a baby was held sideways against an upright mother. The gravitational forces that had helped attachment in reclining postures dragged babies away from their mothers when they sat up. It was harder to keep the baby latched on, and mothers reacted by tightening their grip, resulting in back arching and arm and leg cycling that appeared like thrashing or flailing.

It is important to view these results in context: this was an observational, rather than a controlled study, so the data cannot ‘prove’ that one feeding method is better than another. Many of the mothers who participated fed quite happily whilst sitting upright – as do many women every day – so it’s clear that a reclining posture is not required for successful feeding.

Nevertheless, this research does call into question the idea that a position like the cross-cradle hold is the best one to recommend to new mothers. Innate early breastfeeding behaviours were observed to help attachment when a mother lay back with her baby lying on her tummy, but not when she sat up;  reflexes and gravitational forces which aided latching on when a mother reclined, hindered it when she was upright. If, as this study suggests, women can just lie back and let nature take its course, the often fraught early days of breastfeeding could potentially be a much more relaxed affair.

  1. Early Hum Dev. 2008 Jul;84(7):441-9.

Milk stasis – not infection – is the main cause of mastitis

holding_babyPrior to my brush with it, I thought that mastitis was caused by a bacterial infection. This is not completely unreasonable, given that this is precisely how numerous ‘health’ websites define it (FreeMD, eMedicineHealth, HealthSquare to name just a few). When you consider that the symptoms of mastitis can include a fever as well as redness, lumps and pain in the breasts, and treatment can involve antibiotics, the definition seems to make sense.

Unfortunately, it turns out to be somewhat misleading. Whilst bacterial infection may play a part in mastitis, it is in fact inflammation of the breast tissue that is at the root of the condition, and causes the majority of the symptoms. The World Health Organization describes mastitis as ‘an inflammatory condition of the breast, which may or may not be associated with infection’1. They summarize the uncertain relationship between bacterial infection and mastitis as follows:

Many lactating women who have potentially pathogenic bacteria on their skin or in their milk do not develop mastitis.
But:
Many women who do develop mastitis do not have pathogenic organisms in their milk.

This basically means that you can be carrying the bacteria associated with mastitis – and even have it in your milk – without developing the condition, and conversely, you can succumb to mastitis when there is no evidence you’re carrying the bacteria.

So, if mastitis isn’t due to an infection, what does cause it? It appears that the inflammation that characterizes mastitis is a consequence of ‘milk stasis’: milk is produced, but then remains in the breast, rather than coming out during feeding. Milk stasis can occur for many reasons, including blockages in the ducts, a decrease in feeding frequency and poor attachment1,4. It’s also possible that stress might play a role, by both increasing milk production and delaying the letdown reflex2. Why milk stasis goes on to cause inflammation isn’t so clear, though it could result from inflammatory substances found in milk irritating the breast tissue, or an immune reaction to certain milk proteins3.

Although bacterial infection is not often the primary cause of mastitis, it is sometimes thought to exacerbate the symptoms3. Determining the precise role it plays, however, is a tricky business. Firstly, it is very hard to ensure that milk cultures are sterile, so it isn’t always possible to know that the bacteria found in a woman’s milk haven’t in fact come from her skin when the sample was taken1. Secondly, as stated above, harmful bacteria can be found in the milk of women who don’t have mastitis, indicating that there is not a simple cause and effect relationship between the two. One possibility is that mild changes initiated by milk stasis may be exacerbated by bacterial activity: symptoms could be considered to be on a scale, from a reduction in milk output but no pain (known as subclinical mastitis), to breast abscess and severe pain, with increasing amounts of bacterial involvement as you move from one end to the other3.

What does all this mean if you find yourself suffering from mastitis? Perhaps the most important thing to remember is that the symptoms are probably due to a milk flow problem, so your top priority should be to address any causes of this. This might include making sure your baby is properly latched on, feeding more frequently and emptying the breast properly at each feed. Many doctors also choose to treat mastitis with antibiotics, although there is a lack of consensus as to which ones to use, and even whether it’s appropriate to use them at all (see when should mastitis be treated with antibiotics?). Whether or not you take medication, the most important thing is to keep the milk moving. Whilst feeding with mastitis doesn’t appear to pose a risk to you or your baby, stopping could well do: not only will it make the symptoms worse, but it will almost certainly jeopardize your milk supply5. Mastitis is a common reason for giving up breastfeeding, but it needn’t be – focus on sorting out your feeding technique and you should hopefully make a rapid recovery.

  1. Mastitis: causes and management. World Health Organization; 2000.
  2. Mediators Inflamm. 2008;2008:298760.
  3. Arch Dis Child. 2003 Sep;88(9):818-21
  4. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD005458.
  5. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Sep 15;78(6):727-31.

My mystery rash is mastitis!

telephoneSix weeks down the line, I felt I had really turned a corner with breastfeeding. My nipples were definitely starting to heal, and C seemed to be getting plenty of milk. Admittedly, she was pretty noisy at times (‘clicking’ noises were a regular occurrence) but as the milk was clearly going down her I didn’t really worry when I noticed a pinkish patch starting to appear on the inside of my left breast.

A couple of days passed, and the patch had turned into a definite rash: a wedge-shaped stripe running from the top right to the nipple of my left breast. It didn’t hurt, and I still wasn’t overly perturbed, but I thought I should probably find out what it was.

By this stage, contact with the health visitor had long since ceased, and although I had planned to ask at the weighing clinic, in the end it just didn’t seem the right time. In any case, my recent experience had taught me that the most likely response of any health professional would be to recommend I speak to a counsellor, so I decided to pre-empt them, and got on the phone.

This time I decided to call La Leche League. Like the NCT counsellor I had spoken to previously, the lady who answered the phone had a pretty brusque bedside manner. Never mind – I needed answers, not sympathy. When I had described my symptoms, she replied, without skipping a beat, ‘ah, classic early stage mastitis.’ What?! But it didn’t hurt! This, she agreed, was unusual, but she suspected it was because I had caught it so quickly. If I left it any longer, the pain would definitely arrive. How old was my baby?, she asked. When I said 6 weeks, I could almost hear her wearily shaking her head at the other end of the phone. ‘This is such a common problem at this stage. Women think they’ve really got the hang of breastfeeding and become complacent, so they don’t adequately respond to the fact that their baby has started to get much heavier, and he ends up being poorly attached.’ My heart sank. I had been thinking that I’d pretty much got it sorted. I’d been a bit worried about the clicking noises, but had put them down to the torrent that was released by my letdown these days. Whether or not that was the cause, it seems I should have heeded them as a potential sign of a poor latch.

I put down the phone relieved that I had caught the problem early, but somewhat panicked at the thought of what it might turn into if I didn’t (a fever and a potential hospital admission. No pressure then.) Although her advice – to avoid further inflammation by keeping the breast as empty as possible – seemed straightforward enough, following it involved solving a latch problem that I hadn’t even realized existed. Feeling pretty fed up, I picked up C, and set about perfecting my breastfeeding technique all over again.

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